Neurologists provide approximately one million patients per year in hospitals alone. They treat patients with common diseases such as polyneuropathy and migraine. But also patients with the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and autoimmune disease such as sclerosis. Stroke treatment is becoming more and more important in the clinic. Because new therapies offer better treatment options today.
Strokes are one of the most common diseases in every country and one of the leading causes of acquired disability and death. Stroke is the third most frequent cause of thousands of deaths per year. According to estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO) stroke is the number one cause of death worldwide with an estimated 5.5 million deaths per year. Older patients are particularly affected by stroke. Due to the demographic change and the aging society, more and more strokes will be treated in the future. The treatment of strokes is based on specialized stroke units. It improves the chances of healing by continuous monitoring and cooperation of all treatment groups (nurses, speech therapists, physiotherapists, ergo therapist, and doctors) in the early phase. The treatment options for an ischemic stroke have been improved in recent years. Particularly in the cases of the arrival of patients in the clinic in the early time window. For example, systemic loss therapy and mechanical thrombectomy and early hemicraniectomy in large ischemic stroke events offer various therapies. This can lead to a significant improvement of clinical symptoms and improve the quality of life after stroke.
There may be bleeding at quite different localizations of the brain due to different causes. There is a distinction between cerebral parenchymplusions (intracerebral bleeding), subarachnoid hemorrhages, sub- and epidural hemorrhages. Depending on the type of bleeding, different treatment options can be considered. The spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages are often caused by hypertension. A consistent blood pressure changes are important in the case of major bleeding or bleeding with ventricular infiltration. The system of an external ventricular drainage or the operative hematoma clearing by the neurosurgeons is considered. Subarachnoid hemorrhages are frequently caused by vascular malformations, e.g. aneurysmal. These can be closed by coil occlusion by the neuroradiologists or clipping by the neurosurgery colleagues. This is followed by close monitoring and drug prevention of complications. Secondary causes of intracranial bleeding may be traumatic, tumor-associated or pharmacological.
Idiopathic Parkinson’s Syndrome is one of the most common neurological diseases with a prevalence of 100-200 / 100,000 inhabitants in every country. The aging society is expected to increase the number of Parkinson’s patients. Drug therapy for Parkinson’s syndrome is currently symptomatic. Curative or neuroprotective therapy approaches are also developing. In the case of Parkinson’s patients, Inter alia, the brain messenger dopamine is no longer produced, causing movement disturbances. Typical symptoms of this disease include physical inactivity hypo or bradykinesia, rigidity and trembling of the limbs. One can differentiate between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease from diseases that are clinically similar. For e.g. with motion depletion or A tremor, but have other causes. They include, for example, atypical Parkinson’s syndromes. Besides, Parkinson-like symptoms can also be triggered medically, e.g. after taking neuroleptics or antiemetics.